updated 11 August 04'
The purpose of this section is to provide information and boilerplate language that will help to provide a basic understanding of the issue by factually describing the issue, its scope, and dimensions.
Industrial rocks and minerals are any rock, mineral, or naturally occurring substance of economic value but exclusive of metallic ores (gold, silver, etc.) and mineral fuels (oil, gas, coal, etc.). Industrial rocks and minerals include clay, phosphate, gravel and sand, salt, fluorite, building stone, potash, zeolite, and many others. Industrial-minerals production, with an estimated value of $565 million, was the second-largest contributor to the value of minerals produced in 2002. Since 1993 (first year of data recording by the Utah Geological Survey), the value of industrial minerals has varied from a low of $412 million in 1994 to a high of $583 million in 1999. Industrial minerals tend to be low-cost, bulk materials that are used locally. Utah 's growing population requires ever-increasing supplies of affordable industrial minerals for construction, agricultural, and industrial uses to maintain the present quality of life. The need for local industrial mineral supplies, and the associated development disturbances, must be balanced against increasing demands for lands to be set aside for the protection of other resource values such as wildlife, open space, and watersheds.
During 2002, industrial mineral production (including sand and gravel) came from all counties in Utah, and the diverse commodities were produced from 190 different mines. The site of the major mines is shown on the attached figure. Extraction of industrial mineral commodities in Utah is conducted mainly for construction materials, agricultural products, and other industrial applications. Over the past five years, those commodities or commodity groups that have realized substantial gains include sand and gravel and crushed stone; Portland cement and lime; and salines, including salt, magnesium chloride, potash, and sulfate of potash. Other major commodities produced in Utah, in descending order of value, include phosphate, gilsonite, expanded shale, common clay, bentonite, and gypsum. Within the next 25 years, future industrial mineral production is expected to continue to come predominantly from the areas of Utah that have had historic industrial mineral production.
Options & Trade-Offs
Potential for Conflict
Certainly there are different perspectives on rock and mineral resource management. There are those on one end of the spectrum that want no development at all. These people would prefer to leave the land and its resources untouched. On the other end of the spectrum are those who are only interested in recovering the mineral resource without regard for the land or environment ("Rape and pillage" the land).
Somewhere in the middle are those who promote responsible development with regard to the environment and restoration of the land to a useable condition.
Basically the argument boils down to land use. Do we want wilderness or suburbia? Do we want agriculture or housing? Do we want mining or undeveloped land?
Range of Alternatives
Most counties have planning and zoning boards that can determine what uses can be developed on the land. Mining laws now require that mines get reclaimed once they have been completed. The types of land uses that are acceptable or allowed must be considered during reclamation.
The purpose of this section is to provide information and boilerplate language that will help to describe the existing condition.
Sand and gravel, and crushed stone (including crushed limestone and dolomite) were the largest contributors to the value of industrial minerals produced in Utah during 2002, with an estimated value of $160 million. These materials are produced in every county in Utah by commercial operators, and by federal, state, and county agencies. Preliminary 2002 data show production of 33.9 million short tons of sand and gravel with an estimated value of $119 million, and 9.37 million short tons of crushed stone with an estimated value of $41.5 million.
The combined commodities of Portland cement and lime (and some limestone and dolomite) had the second-highest produced value for industrial minerals in 2002, with a combined value of $159 million. Portland cement is produced at one operation in Morgan County and one operation in Juab County . Both operations worked at near capacity during 2002, which combined is about 1.5 million short tons. Lime production was about 613,000 short tons in 2002, and came from two suppliers, Graymont Western U.S. , Incorporated's plant in Millard County , and Chemical Lime of Arizona's operation in Tooele County . Combined capacity of the two operations is more than 1.0 million short tons. Both operations serve markets in Utah and surrounding states. Additionally, 10 to 12 operators quarried about 2.3 million short tons of limestone and dolomite in 2002 that was used mainly for construction and flue-gas desulfurization in coal-fired power plants. A small amount of limestone and dolomite is also crushed to a fine powder and marketed as “rock dust” to the coal mining industry.
Brine-derived products, including salt, are the third-highest contributors to the value of industrial-minerals production in Utah during 2002, with a combined value of about $148 million. In addition to salt, brine-derived products include magnesium chloride and potash (potassium chloride and sulphate of potash). One company produces a small amount of concentrated brine that is used as an ingredient in mineral food supplements. The statewide production of salt and other brine-derived products, excluding magnesium metal, is estimated to be 3.68 million short tons in 2002. Potash production is estimated to be about 350,000 short tons in 2002. Salt production alone is estimated to be 3.0 million short tons in 2002, with most of the production coming from three operators using brine from Great Salt Lake . These operators are: (1) IMC Kalium Ogden Corporation, (2) Cargill Salt Company, and (3) Morton International, Incorporated. In addition, three other companies produce salt and/or potash from operations not located on Great Salt Lake: (1) Reilly Chemical Company at Wendover in Tooele County (potash), (2) Moab Salt LLC near Moab in Grand County (salt and potash), and (3) Redmond Minerals, Incorporated near Redmond in Sanpete County (salt).
SF Phosphates, Limited is Utah 's only phosphate producer. The company's phosphate operation is north of Vernal in Uintah County . SF Phosphates is owned by J.R. Simplot, Incorporated. The company mines roughly 3 to 4 million short tons of ore annually, which is processed into 1 to 2 million short tons of phosphate concentrate. During 2002, the mine produced about 4.0 million short tons of ore, its highest production in the past 11 years.
Gilsonite production for 2002 is estimated to be about 65,000 short tons. Gilsonite is an unusual solid hydrocarbon that has been mined in Utah for more than 100 years. All of the gilsonite mines are located in the southern Uinta Basin in eastern Uintah County . The three companies that produce gilsonite are: (1) American Gilsonite Company, (2) Zeigler Chemical and Minerals Company, and (3) Lexco, Incorporated. Gilsonite is marketed worldwide for use in over 150 products ranging from printing inks to explosives. Gilsonite production has been relatively stable for the past several years.
Utelite, Inc., mined more than 200,000 short tons of shale in 2002 to manufacture “expanded shale” for use as a lightweight aggregate for the construction industry. The mine is located near the town of Wanship in Summit County .
Nearly 270,000 short tons of common clay and approximately 35,000 short tons of bentonite were produced by five companies in 2002. Statewide, clay operators held 23 active mine permits in 2002. Many of these mines, both Large and Small, are operated intermittently. In descending order of production, the three largest producers of common clay in 2002 were: (1) Interstate Brick Company, (2) Interpace Industries, and (3) Paradise Management Company. More than 75 percent of all common clay is used in the manufacture of brick. Another significant market for clay is as a raw material in the manufacture of Portland cement. Two companies, Western Clay Company and Redmond Minerals, Incorporated, produce bentonite from pits located in central Utah . Bentonite is used as a water-proofing agent in many civil engineering applications, as a pet-waste absorbent, as an additive in oil and gas drilling fluids, and as a binder in foundry molds.
The industrial mineral commodities in all of Utah 's counties are not the same quality, but vary in terms of physical properties and chemistry. Further, some of the industrial mineral resources in Utah are also restricted from development because of land-use decisions where lands have been set aside for urban growth, wildlife considerations, water resource protection, wilderness and roadless areas, and national monuments to name some of the land-use restrictions.
Information on industrial mineral reserves on a county-by-county basis is not publicly available, but those counties that have had the greatest historical production are likely to have the greatest remaining reserves as well.
The federal, state, and local governments all have laws and rules regarding the exploration and development of industrial mineral resources in Utah . Most of these regulations and rules concern protection of other resource values and returning the land, after industrial mineral extraction, to the approximate original pre-extraction conditions. State and federal laws do not pertain to county-owned or private lands.
Information on industrial mineral resources of Utah can be found on these Internet sites:
Available Publications, Maps, and Other Information :
It should be noted that the U.S. Geological Survey has also conducted numerous investigations over the years on the industrial mineral resources in Utah. Reports resulting from those investigations are not compiled here, but more information can be found at the U.S. Geological Survey internet site listed below. (click here for more)
The Division of Oil, Gas and Mining (OGM) is the lead agency that regulates the exploration for and development of mineral resources in Utah . Prior to mining in the State of Utah a permit must be obtained through the Division. When exploration and developmental activities are completed, the Division ensures that mining sites are satisfactorily reclaimed.
Items to Consider
In describing the Existing Condition, the author should address:
Counties should contact the Division for assistance in this area.
The purpose of this section is to provide information and boilerplate language that will help to describe the improvements and changes that need to be made to the existing condition in order to achieve the desired future condition. It also provides the basis for the development of policy statements that support the desired future condition.
In describing the Desired Future Condition, the author should address:
Range of Alternatives
There are basically two alternatives to consider. Minerals are considered nonrenewable resources. Once they are used they are no longer available. (Irretrievable) When dealing with a mineral resource the choice is usually do we use it or not. Once the decision has been made to develop the resource there are numerous considerations and alternatives associated with that decision. (See Items to consider above.) Other considerations include: Short term uses versus long term productivity, Multiple-land use, other affected resources, cumulative impacts.
Counties should contact the Division for assistance in this area.
The purpose of this section is to provide boilerplate policy statement language that will support the desired future conditions. A range of possible conditions is provided here.
The mission of the Minerals Regulatory Program (OGM) is to regulate exploration for, and development and reclamation of, non-coal mineral resources of the state in conformance with the Utah Mined Land Reclamation Act, UCA 40-8 in a manner which:
Recognizing that Utah contains a wealth of industrial mineral resources, the current State (Utah Geological Survey code) position is one of promoting the prudent and sustainable development of critical industrial mineral resources to provide low-cost construction and agricultural products, and other industrial needs in Utah, and preserving adequate access to explore and develop those industrial mineral resources.
The purpose of this section is to provide boilerplate examples of the types of improvements or changes that typically would be needed to reach the desired future condition. “Goal” is the desired condition. “Objectives” are improvements or changes that need to be made to reach the goal. “Action Items” are specific actions that can be taken in order to achieve the objective.
Goal: Maintain a viable mining industry
Objective: Ensure that proper mining techniques are used and appropriate permits are obtained.
Objective: Federal, State and Local agencies will participate in planning and permitting processes so that the mining industry can secure the necessary approvals
The purpose of this section is to provide suggested techniques and methods for monitoring progress towards the desired condition.
Counties should contact the Division for assistance in this area.
This section is intended to be a reference guide to help locate any sources of assistance.
Resources to Assist/Personal Contacts for More Information :
Utah Geological Survey: (801) 537-3300
Utah School & Institutional Trust Lands Administration
Division of Oil, Gas and Mining
U.S. Bureau of Land Management
U.S. Geological Survey
Utah Mining Association
Recent specific publications on industrial mineral resources in Utah are:
Utah Geological Survey:
Pruitt, R.G., Jr., 1961, The mineral resources of Uintah County : Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Bulletin 71, 101 p.
Pratt, A.R., and Callaghan, E., 1970, Land and mineral resources of Sanpete County : Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Bulletin 85, 69 p., 2 pl.
Doelling, H.H., 1975, Geology and mineral resources of Garfield County : Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Bulletin 107, 175 p., 1 pl., 1:250,000.
Bullock, K.C., 1976, Fluorite occurrences in Utah : Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Bulletin 110, 89 p.
Doelling, H.H., 1980, Geology and mineral resources of Box Elder County: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Bulletin 115, 251 p., 3 pl., 1:125,000
Doelling, H.H., and Davis, F.D., 1989, The geology of Kane County, Utah; geology, mineral resources, geologic hazards, by with sections on petroleum and carbon dioxide by C.J. Brandt, Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Bulleting 124, 192 p., 10 pl., 1:100,000.
Sprinkel, D.A., 1999, Digital geologic Resources Atlas of Utah: Utah Geological Survey Bulletin 129-DF, 1 CD-ROM.
Gloyn, R.W., Tabet, D.E., Tripp, B.T., Bishop, C.E., Morgan, C.D., Gwynn, J.W., and Blackett, R.E., 2003, Energy, mineral, and ground-water resources of Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah: Utah Geological Survey Bulletin 132, 162 p., 14 pl.Special Studies
Henderson , G.V., 1968, Pyrophyllite-bearing clay in Clinton deposit, Utah County, Utah : Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Special Studies 23, 28 p., 1 pl.
Whelan, J.A., 1969, Subsurface brines and soluble salts of subsurface sediments, Sevier Lake, Millard County , Utah : Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Special Studies 30, 13 p.
Henderson , G.V., 1971,Origin of pyrophyllite-rectorite in shales of north-central Utah : Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Special Studies 34, 46 p.
Sayre, R.L., 1974, Geology and mineralization of the Church Hills, Millard County , Utah : Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Special Studies 47, 22 p., 1 pl.
Bullock, K.C., 1981, Geology of the fluorite occurrences, Spor Mountain , Juab County , Utah : Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Special Studies 53, 31 p.
Whelan, J.A., 1982, Geology, ore deposits and mineralogy of the Rocky Range , near Milford , Beaver County , Utah: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Special Studies 57, 35 p.
Tripp, B.T., 1994, The quartzite building stone industry of the Raft River and Grouse Creek Mountains, Box Elder County, Utah: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Special Studies 84, 19 p.
Gloyn, R.W., Morgan, C.D., Tabet, D.E., Blackett, R.E., Tripp, B.T., and Lowe, M., Mineral, energy, and ground-water resources of San Juan County, Utah : Utah Geological Survey Special Study 86, 39 p.Circulars
Tripp, B.T., 1991, The industrial rock and mineral industry in Utah, 1990: Utah Geological Survey Circular 82, 31 p.
Morgan, C.D., Yonkee, W.A., and Tripp, B.T., 1991, Geological considerations for oil and gas drilling on State potash leases at Cane Creek anticline, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah: Utah Geological Survey Circular 84, 24 p.
Gwynn, J.W., 1995, Resistivities and chemical analyses of selected oil and gas field, water well, and spring waters, Utah : Utah Geological Survey Circular 87, 142 p.
Bon, R.L., Gloyn, R.W., and Tabet, D.E., 1996, Utah mineral activity summary for 1995: Utah Geological Survey Circular 91, 15 p.
Allison, M.L., compiler, 1997, A preliminary assessment of energy and mineral resources within the Grand Staircase - Escalante National Monument : Utah Geological Survey Circular 93, 36 p.
Bon, R.L., Gloyn, R.W., and Tabet, D.E., 1997, 1996 summary of mineral activity in Utah : Utah Geological Survey Circular 98, 12 p.
Reports of Investigation
Gwynn, J.W., 1984, Mining conditions and problems encountered within the Texasgulf-Cane Creek Potash Mine near Moab , Utah (Grand Co.); and potential mining conditions at Gibson Dome, Utah (San Juan Co.): Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Report of Investigation 184 , 12 p.
Gwynn, J.W., Clem, K.M., Shubat, M.A., Tripp, B.T., and Sturm, P.A., 1985, Mineral occurrences in the Emergency Withdrawal Area and adjacent lands in the Great Salt Lake Desert (Tooele Co.): Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Report of Investigation 200, 41 p.
Shubat, M.A., 1988, Scandium-bearing aluminum phosphate deposits of Utah : Utah Geological Survey Report of Investigation 209, 26 p.
Gwynn, J.W., 1986, An approximation of the physical and chemical characteristics of Farmington Bay and Bear River Bay, Great Salt Lake, Utah: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Report of Investigation 211, 22 p.
Blackett, R.E., Brandt, C.J., Chidsey, T.C., Jr., and Bishop, C.E., 1992, Mineral and energy resources in Kane County , Utah and their occurrence with respect to Wilderness Study Areas: Utah Geological Survey Report of Investigation 221, 42 p.
Tabet, D.E., Hucka, B.P., and Sommer, S.N., 1995, The resinite resources of selected coal seams of the Book Cliff and Wasatch Plateau coal fields of central Utah : Utah Geological Survey Report of Investigation 225, 19 p.
Gwynn, J.W., 1998, Potential mineral precipitation and water compatibilities related to the Drunkards Wash project, Carbon County , Utah : Utah Geological Survey Report of Investigation 241, 22 p.
F.D. Davis, compiler, 1985, Mineral resources of the central Wasatch Front (Petroleum potential by J.A. Campbell): Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Map 54D, 2pl., 1:100,000, 24 p.
F.D. Davis, compiler, 1988, Mineral resources of the southern Wasatch Front, Utah, with a section on petroleum by F.C. Moulton and R.L. Kerns, Jr.: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Map 55D, 17 p., 2 pl., 1:100,000,
Doelling, H.H., 1983, Non-metallic mineral resources of Utah : Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Map 71, 1:750,000.
Currey, D.R., Atwood, G., and Mabey, D., 1984, Major levels of Great Salt Lake and Lake Bonneville : Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Map 73, 1 pl., 1:750,000.Miscellaneous Publications
Smith, M.R., 1987, Industrial commodities: Non-metallic resources of Utah : Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Miscellaneous Publication 87-4, fold-out.
Wilson, J.R., 1995, A collector's guide to rock, mineral & fossil localities of Utah : Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 95-4, 148 p.
Marty, J., Howard, D.G., and Barwood, H., 1999, Minerals of the Utahlite Claim, Lucin, Box Elder County , Utah : Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-6, 13 p., ISBN 1-55791-639-X.
Bon, R.L., Riordan, R.F., Tripp, B.T., and Krukowski, S.T., editors, 2001, Proceedings of the 35th Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals - The Intermountain West Forum 1999: Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 01-2, 286 p., ISBN 1-55791-654-3.
Public Information Series
Eldredge, S.N., and Wilkerson, C.M., 1990, Geologic resources of Salt Lake County , Utah : Utah Geological Survey Public Information Series 5, 32 p.
Eldredge, S.N., 1992, Geologic resources of San Juan County , Utah : Utah Geological Survey Public Information Series 14, 30 p.
Tripp, B.T., 1993, Utah stone: Utah Geological Survey Public Information Series 17, color flyer.
Bugden, M., 1993, Geologic resources of Washington County , Utah : Utah Geological Survey Public Information Series 20, 26 p.
Gwynn, J.W., 1996, Commonly asked questions about Utah 's Great Salt Lake and ancient Lake Bonneville : Utah Geological Survey Public Information Series 39, 22 p.
Gwynn, J.W., 1997, Brine properties, mineral extraction industries, and salt load of Great Salt Lake , Utah : Utah Geological Survey Public Information Series 51, 2 p.
Wilkerson, C.M., 1999, Building stones of downtown Salt Lake City , a walking tour: Utah Geological Survey Public Information Series 60, 24 p.
Sturm, P.A., 1986, Great Salt Lake brine sampling program 1966 to 1985, history, database, and averaged data: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Open File Report 87DF, 183 p., 1 diskette.
Tripp, B.T., Shubat, M.A., Bishop, C.E., and Blackett, R.E., 1989, Mineral occurrences of the Tooele 1 o x 2 o quadrangle, west-central Utah: Utah Geological and Mineral Survey Open File Report 153, 85 p., 3 pl., 1:48,000.
Tripp, B.T., Shubat, M.A., Blackett, R.E., and, Bishop, C.E., 1990,Utah Mineral Occurrence System Data-base for the Tooele 1 o x 2 o quadrangle, west-central Utah : Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 153DF, 1 diskette, 1.2 Mbyte.
Everett , B.H., Kowallis, B.J., Christiansen, E.H., and Deino, A., 1990, Correlation of Jurassic sediments of the Carmel and Twin Creek Formations of southern Utah using bentonitic characteristics: Utah Geological Survey Open Filed Report 169, 60 p.
UGS staff, 1990, Utah Mineral Occurrence System Database for the Delta 1 o x 2 o quadrangle, west-central Utah : Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 183DF, 1 disk, 1.2 M format.
UGS staff, 1990, Utah Mineral Occurrence System Database for the Richfield 1 o x 2 o quadrangle, west-central Utah : Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 184DF, 1 disk, 1.2M format.
UGS staff, 1990, Utah Mineral Occurrence Database for the Cedar City 1 o x 2 o quadrangle, southwest Utah : Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 184DF, 1 disk, 1.2M format.
Mayes, B.H., and Tripp, B.T., 1991, Zeolite minerals in Utah : Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 210, 170 p., 1 pl., 1:750,000.
McDonald, G.N., 1999, Known and potential sand, gravel, and crushed stone resources in Grand County , Utah : Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 369, 21 p. 1 pl., 1" = 4 miles.
Bon, R.L., and Wakefield , S., 2002, Large mine permits in Utah 2002: Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 398, 3 p., 1 pl., 1" = 14 miles
Bon, R.L., and Wakefield , S., 2002, Small mine permits in Utah 2002: Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 405, 7 p., 1 pl., 1:750,000.
Olsen, C.M., and Case, W.F., 2003, Utah Core Research Center catalog of samples: Utah Geological Survey Open File Report 413, CD-ROM.Contract Reports
Christiansen, E.H., Rogers , J.P., and Wu, L.M., 1991, Crystallization conditions for a Be- and Y-rich granite - the Sheeprock granite of west-central Utah : Utah Geological Survey Contract Report 91-6, 106 p.
James, L.P., 1991, Nonferrous metals mining plants in Utah : Utah Geological Survey Contract Report 91-7, 50 p.
Nash, W.P., 1991, Abundance of yttrium in Late Cenozoic igneous rocks of western Utah and adjoining areas: Utah Geological Survey Contract Report 91-9, 82 p.
Publications on Utah 's industrial mineral resources are also available from the Utah Geological Association. A list of pertinent publications follows:
Utah Geological Association Publications
Picard, M.D., editor, 1985, Geology and energy resources, Uinta Basin of Utah: Utah Geological Association Guidebook 12, 338 p.
Griffen, D.T., and Phillips, W. R., editors, 1986, Thrusting and extensional structures and mineralization in the Beaver Dam Mountains, southwestern Utah: Utah Geological Association Guidebook 15, 217 p., 3 pl.
Allison, M.L., editor, 1991, Energy and mineral resources of Utah : Utah Geological Association Guidebook 18, 222 p.
Fouch, T.D., Nuccio, V.F., and Chidsey, T.C., Jr., editors, 1992, Hydrocarbon and mineral resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado : Utah Geological Association Guidebook 20, 366 p.
Huffman, A.C., Jr., Lund , W.R., and Godwin, L.H., editors, 1996, Geology and resources of the Paradox Basin : Utah Geological Association Guidebook 25, 460 p.